11 and onwards) are Jan 20, 2021 · Stephen O’Grady, open-source licensing expert and co-founder of RedMonk, the developer-focused analyst company, thinks: “Clearly Elastic is legally within their rights to make the change, but I am not in general a believer that licenses are a solution to business model issues. 11 onwards, Elasticsearch and Kibana would be issued only under an Elastic licence which has no Jan 16, 2021 · This source code license change should not affect you - you can use our default distribution or develop applications on top of it for free, under the Elastic License. 2021 Elastic souhaite mettre fin à son utilisation de la licence Apache 2. Jan 14, 2021 · Upcoming licensing changes to Elasticsearch and Kibana We are moving our Apache 2. In this example, the demand for cookies is elastic. 0 licence after a period of up to five years. This change only affects the source code — our releases will continue to be free and open under the Elastic License. by IBM under the terms and conditions of the IBM License Agreement for&nbs 23 Jan 2020 Elastic Bamboo uses a remote agent AMI (Amazon Machine Image) to your EC2 compute usage (separately to your Bamboo license fee). I am happy to share the results with you. io, Apache SkyWalking Creator. In June and Kibana to be dual licensed under Server Side Public Lice 8 Feb 2021 To summarize those articles, Elastic is changing their licensing and the Elastic Stack will no longer be available under the Apache license. Last week, Elastic announced they will change their software licensing strategy, and will not release new versions of Elasticsearch and Kibana under the Apache License, Version 2. The company announced its Apache 2. Side Public License, v 1 and the Elastic License 2. maintenanceConfigurationId string Maintenance configuration id assigned to the elastic pool. Feb 12, 2021 · The binaries were available through the elastic license. Elastic announced their license change, Upcoming licensing changes to Elasticsearch and Kibana. Elastic recently announced licensing changes to Elasticsearch and Kibana, with the company moving away from the Apache 2. 0 license to dual licensing Technology Elastic delivers blow to AWS with open source licensing change techradar. The license model will change with the next release. Jan 22, 2021 · It’s also why they felt the need to write an additional blustery blog (on top of their initial license change blog) to try to explain their actions as “AWS made us do it. Jan 29, 2021 · What does the new license change? For users, Elasticsearch will continue to be licensed under the terms of the Elastic License, and there will be no changes. 11 Feb 2021 Keywords · Install · Weekly Downloads · Version · License · Unpacked Size · Total Files · Issues · Pull Requests. Image Source: elastic. Recently, Shay Banon, the founder and CEO of Elastic NV, wrote a series of posts about the upcoming license change to Elasticsearch from Apache 2 to the Server Side Public License (SSPL). Feb 28, 2006 · Blog: License Change Clarification FAQs (updated) Tweet thread from our Founder and CEO, Shay Banon. io then announced they would start their own fork of Elasticsearch On January 21st AWS announced they would maintain their own fork of Elasticsearch as part of Open Distro for Elasticsearch Tech News || Open source software maker Elastic will soon make things quite difficult for AWS as the company is moving its source code from the Apache When we announced our license change for Elasticsearch and Kibana, moving the Apache 2. x and master/8. Once the installation It is important to change the default password of Kiba All we have done to the script is change the licence key, however we are never getting any data in. When the absolute value of the price elasticity is > 1, the demand is elastic. And the change in licensing basically screwed them over. , AWS or Logz. 0-license … Feb 11, 2021 · This shift comes following Elastic’s recent announcement that the company is changing its Elasticsearch source code licensing from the fully open source Apache 2. The Apache 2. io) could use Elastic under Apache-2, build on top of it, and Elastic's decision to switch the license on its popular search and analytic engine Elasticsearch from the open source Apache 2. - SSPL is well known - millions of people use MongoDB under this license. S. This source-available license does not contain any copyleft provisions and the default functionality is free of charge. 0 license is being replaced by Server Side Public License (SSPL). What is “not ok” is the fact that switching to a GPL based license forces projects depending on the code like CrateDB to use a fork since it kills the business model. license. The Java HLRC has dependencies on the core of Elasticsearch, and as a result this client library will be licensed under the Elastic License. I don't think there's something wrong in having these feelings if you counted on Elastic words like 'the license will never change' and then it does change. Over time, we will eliminate this dependency and move the Java HLRC to be licensed under Apache 2. Please note, if you change your AWS account details, Bamboo will stop all elastic&nbs in Sudan and gun buyback programs in the U. Licenses and pay-as-you-go credit are stored centrally, so it's easy to add, change or delete a customer's purchases later. 3 버전부터 큰 변화가 있었습니다. 5 > 1. The aim is "to restrict cloud service providers from offering our software as a service," but others warn this could make the products risky to use unless a paid-for licence is adopted. A better way to manage  14 Jan 2021 In a play to convert users of their open source projects into paying customers, today Elastic announced that they are changing the license of  21 janv. 0 라이선스 소스 코드를 SSPL(Server Side Public License)과 Elastic License에 따라 이중 라이선스로 전환  2021년 1월 19일 그럼 왜 변화가 있었을까요? Elastic의 라이선스 변경은 기업들이 Elasticsearch와 Kibana 제품을 amazon-cto-tweet-license-change. Jun 16, 2020 · The Alteon Global Elastic License (GEL) is a new deployment model that enables a high level of flexibility for ADC services across data centers, private and public clouds. You are required to repay a portion of your Balance each Billing Cycle, and if you have a Carried Balance of greater than $10, a Carried Balance Fee of $5 - $350 will apply. Jan 18, 2021 · January 18, 2021. Summary List PlacementEarlier this month, $15 billion Elastic made a change to the licensing terms of its free search engine software for businesses, in a move intended to make a stand against what it saw as exploitation by Amazon Web Services. Both If you have any questions, check out our FAQ or reach out to us at elastic_license@elastic. This configuration defines the period when the maintenance updates will will occur. 25 Jan 2021 Our license change is aimed at preventing companies from taking our Elasticsearch and Kibana products and providing them directly as a service  20 Jan 2021 The business-model war between open-source software vendors and cloud providers heats up with Elastic taking on Amazon Web Services. 0 allows users of the software to distribute, modify, or otherwise use software for any purpose, as long as the user complies with the license terms. Jan 22, 2021 · Elastic is tackling Amazon Web Services' (AWS) with its new license change. 0 license (APLv2) and adopting the Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the To catch up on the catfight, you can read Elastic’s announcement here, and AWS’s response here. We recently  2021년 2월 9일 지난 1월 15일 Elastic은 오픈(개방형) 강화를 위한 변화, Part II라는 글을 License) 과 Elastic 라이센스 듀얼 라이센스로 변경하겠다고 발표한다. -. 0. 0 model to a dual licensed model under the Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the “Elastic  19 Jan 2021 For many users, especially those already signed up as Elastic subscribers or partners, the licensing changes won't matter. 8, 7. Jan 18, 2021 · Updated Elastic, whose products include Elasticsearch and Kibana, has adopted a new licence called SSPL (Server Side Public License), as used by MongoDB. Exercises at home for stretching and strengthening muscles, the girl is engaged with an elastic band close-up - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Sales: 800-685-3602 Sell Elasticsearch와 Kibana의 Apache 2. If the licensing change  Elasticsearch is a search engine based on the Lucene library. It’s a very clear […] Elasticsearch is developed in Java and is dual-licensed under the source-available Server Side Public License and the Elastic license, while other parts fall under the proprietary (source-available) Elastic License. With each Cash Advance, you pay a 5% or 10% Cash Advance Fee, depending on your Billing Cycle. ” Earlier this month, $15 billion Elastic made a change to the licensing terms of its free search engine software for businesses, in a move intended to make a stand against what it saw as Jan 27, 2021 · On January 14th Elastic announced a licensing change: Doubling down on open, part II, essentially signalling that going forward they’ll use SSPL Logz. Radware introduces the Alteon Global Elastic License (GEL), a new licensing model that delivers flexibility for deployment of ADC services across cloud and  PyTorch Elastic (torchelastic) is a framework that enables distributed training jobs to be executed or shared pools where the pool size can change dynamically based on demand. 0-licensed source code to be dual licensed under both the Elastic License and SSPL, we also mentioned we would work closely with the community on a simplified and more permissive version of the Elastic License. Accept the licence agreement when prompted. By. Security Onion is a free and open source Linux distribution for threat hunting, enterprise security monitoring, and log management. ” Elasticsearch’s move towards the more restrictive Server Side Public License has already begun to ruffle feathers among developers. 5. 11 un de nos clients, que ce soit sur Elastic Cloud ou sur site, rien ne change. Main points from the blog that should help address most questions: Our on-prem or Elastic Cloud customers will not be impacted. The business-model war between open-source software vendors and cloud providers heats up with Elastic taking on Amazon Web If Elasticsearch security features are enabled, you need manage cluster privileges to install the license. The aim is "to restrict cloud service providers from offering our software as a service," but others warn this could make the products risky to use unless a paid-for licence is adopted. 11 release is generally available. Related Posts. This change will apply to all maintained branches of our software — 6. g. 0-license to the Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the Elastic License. 0 license to the "fauxpen" Server Side Public License, announced in January, was a typical move for a company built on open source software. io has utilized Elasticsearch code as part of CrateDB from its inception. 예전처럼  9 Feb 2021 Elastic's Banon said in an interview that he expected a fork as a result of the Elasticsearch license change, though he would have preferred for it  14 Jan 2021 In January 2021, Elastic switched from the Apache V2 open-source license for to a non open-source license to Server Side Public License (SSPL). licenseType Elastic Pool License Type; The license type to apply for this elastic pool. FAQ on 2021 License Change. 2021 Elastic va intègre la licence SPPL avec la prochaine version 7. Jan 20, 2021 · Elastic is the latest company changing its software licensing model to protect its open-source code from cloud providers. 2019년 3월 11일, AWS와  1 Feb 2021 The Elasticsearch and Kibana license change may have less to do with alleged abuse by AWS than Elastic's public statements would have you  Source code in this repository is covered by (i) a dual license under the Server. Binaries remain protected under the Elastic License only. What do you think? Bonsai & Elasticsearch License Change Survey. Technology · By Krishna Rao Last updated Jan 22, 2021. % change in quantity demanded / % change in price. We are moving our Apache 2. Many small businesses build their products around Elastic (and other single company controlled OSS projects) because the project was licensed as Apache 2. 0 pour le code d'Elasticsearch et de Kibana. 2 Feb 11, 2021 · This shift comes following Elastic’s recent announcement that the company is changing its Elasticsearch source code licensing from the fully open source Apache 2. Without a great deal more strategic information about Elastic’s business and operations none of us are qualified to judge whether it’s the correct decision, but the decision itself is valid. yml file using the line below : xpack. 0 라이선스 소스 코드를 Elastic License와 SSPL에 따라 이중 라이센스가 되도록 변경했습니다. Basic usage continues to be free, but source code will be dual licensed as either SSPL or Elastic License and binary packages will only be available under the Elastic License. Users aren't the issue here. 1/3. 2021년 1월 14일 Elasticsearch와 Kibana의 Apache 2. Previously under the permissive Apache 2 license, future versions of the software will be dual-licensed allowing users to choose between Elastic’s own license or the Server Side Public License (SSPL) created by MongoDB. Elastic chief Shay Banon announced a dual-licensing model recently, saying that from version 7. It provides a distributed, In March 2015, the company Elasticsearch changed their name to Elastic. Share. The ebextension code is below and this has been taken from   The time period allowed following a price change – demand is more price elastic, the longer that consumers have to respond to a price change. type: basic This will disable the trial and enable only the free features. January 18, 2021. Feb 11, 2021 · This shift comes following Elastic’s recent announcement that the company is changing its Elasticsearch source code licensing from the fully open source Apache 2. co . Instead, new versions of the software will be offered under the Elastic License (which limits how it can be used) or the Server Side Public License (which has requirements that make it unacceptable to many in the open source community ). 22 Jan 2021 Last week, Elastic announced they will change their software licensing strategy, and will not release new versions of Elasticsearch and Kibana  This license change, effective from Elasticsearch version 7. Jan 17, 2021 · By Sheng Wu, Tetrate. . Let’s do the math. Jan 21, 2021 · Netflix’s Increased Subscribers, Netflix’s Decreased Costs, Elastic Changes License Posted on Thursday, January 21, 2021 Thursday, January 21, 2021 Author by Ben Thompson More on Netflix’s earnings, and why it won’t give back pandemic gains. Elastic is known for its open source search and analytic engine Elasticsearch and its data visualization dashboard Kibana which Feb 02, 2021 · When we announced our license change for Elasticsearch and Kibana, moving the Apache 2 licensed source code to be dual licensed under both the Elastic License and SSPL, we also mentioned we would work closely with the community on a simplified and more permissive version of the Elastic License. Team Leaders. self_generated. Copy. Crate. 25 Jan 2021 This change is from the long-standing Apache 2. 0 to be dual licensed under the Elastic License and SSPL. Tim Anderson Mon 18 Jan 2021 // 19:17 UTC. With dynamic role-based access control you can change the set of roles 2021年1月22日 また、SSPLもElastic Licenseもどちらもオープンソースライセンス to change Elastic licensing」(Amazonはだめだ - なぜ私たちはElsticの  Take our survey on Elastic's Upcoming License Change. A few years ago AWS launched their own Amazon Elasticsearch Service. There are currently five   az sql elastic-pool create --name --resource-group --server [--capacity] [--db-dtu- max] [--db-dtu-min] [--edition] [--family] [--license-type {BasePrice,  30 May 2019 dozen companies changed their licenses in 2018) and open-source Dgraph (now using Cockroach Community License), Elastic License,  Furthermore, there were structural changes in the thickness, shortness and curling of these mature elastic fibers. To summarize those articles, Elastic is changing their licensing and the Elastic Stack will no longer be available under the Apache license. co changed that license from Apache 2. It currently offers 18 versions of Elasticsearch on Amazon ES, and “none of these are affected by the license change,” it stressed. But it is making this change, not because of people like you and I. Included in the switch was The license change[1][2] announced yesterday will have no impact on Magento users using Elasticsearch. If Elasticsearch security features are enabled and you are installing a gold or higher license, you must enable TLS on the transport networking layer before you install the license. Jan 21, 2021 · Stepping up for a truly open source Elasticsearch. 21 Jan 2021 Netflix's Increased Subscribers, Netflix's Decreased Costs, Elastic Changes License · $12 per month or $120 per year $15 per month or $150 per  19 janv. The creation date of the elastic pool (ISO8601 format). 0-licensed source code in Elasticsearch and Kibana to be dual licensed under Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the Elastic License, giving users the choice of which license to apply. 0 License, Elastic will give customers the choice between its home-brewed Elastic License and the Server Side Public License (SSPL). Jan 19, 2021 · Our license change is aimed at preventing companies from taking our Elasticsearch and Kibana products and providing them directly as a service without collaborating with us. elastic. SQL Database elastic pool is a shared resource model that enables higher resource utilization efficiency, with all the databases within an elastic pool sharing predefined resources within the same pool. Elastic is modifying its licensing arrangements for source code underlying Elasticsearch and Kibana, creating a dual framework that the company insists will maintain access and collaboration within the open source efforts. Yesterday, Elastic announced they would moving their “Apache 2. 15 Jan 2021 I can understand the motivation - AWS' approach, particularly to elastic, has been pretty awful, and migrating away from Apache/GPL/MIT is like  23 Jan 2021 Amazon: NOT OK - why we had to change Elastic licensing | Elastic Blog https:// www. Instead of distributing source code under the Apache 2. The vast majority of our users will not be impacted. Elastic is known for its open source search and analytic engine Elasticsearch and its data visualization dashboard Kibana which […] Jan 22, 2021 · Open source software maker Elastic will soon make things quite difficult for AWS as the company is moving its source code from the Apache 2. When Elastic, makers of the open-source search and analytic engine Elasticsearch and its companion data visualization dashboard Kibana, announced it was moving both programs' source code from the Apache 2. 0, and will take place before the 7. 18 Jan 2021 Elastic restitches its licensing model to account for 'changed circumstances'. ” Banon argues that Amazon has caused confusion in the community when it decided to launch their Feb 01, 2021 · Both Elasticsearch licenses — the SSPL and the Elastic License — prevent offering the product as a service. Jan 19, 2021 · Elastic License is also well known - If you use our default distribution, as millions of others and 90%+ of our downloads over the past 3 years, you already use it and there is no change for you. co “Apache License 2. They have more  9 Oct 2018 These Elastic CoD days can be applied to any similar IBM POWER9 or does not include tax or shipping and is subject to change without notice. jpg. The company  2021년 1월 24일 Elastic의 License Change Clarification 에서 발췌, 구글 번역하였습니다. 25% / 10% = 2. See Jan 21, 2021 · Elastic delivers blow to AWS with open source licensing change January 21, 2021 Open source software maker Elastic will quickly make issues fairly tough for AWS because the company is shifting its source code from the Apache 2. Elastic’s step to change licences had drawn quite a bit of attention to the project earlier this year , since it signified the company’s departure from open source and new orientation towards a “source available” approach to some users. The long and short of it is that Elastic is changing its licensing. But prior to the change, anyone (e. If you want to run the Elastic Stack using only the free features, which means that you will use the free basic license, you need to set your license in the elasticsearch. Jan 19, 2021 · Elastic, the company founded by the creators of the Elasticsearch search server, recently announced a change to the license of its core product. torchelastic is BSD licensed, as found in the LICENSE 30 Sep 2020 to run in AWS Elastic Beanstalk, ensure that you have completed the under, either a standard license that the CA Support site issues or an section, add the following environment variables, and then save your change 2 Dec 2020 Elastic (NYSE: ESTC) (“Elastic”), the company behind Elasticsearch and the Elastic Stack, by these forward-looking statements due to uncertainties, risks, and changes in circumstances, Cost of license - self-managed 1 Mar 2017 My laptop's IP address changes as it moves from my home office to the corporate office and then to a hotel. Jan 22, 2021 · In a more recent blog post, Banon explained that Elastic is changing how it licenses its source code in order to prevent AWS from offering its products as a service, saying: “They have been doing Jan 20, 2021 · Elastic changes open-source license to monetize cloud-service use. GitHub Twitter Linkedin | Sunday, January 17, 2021. Updated Elastic, whose products include Elasticsearch and Kibana, has adopted a new licence called SSPL (Server Side Public License), as used by MongoDB. 11, has business owners that There is a reason any major changes to Elastic's license terms create  21 Jan 2021 Last week, Elastic announced they will change their software licensing strategy, and will not release new versions of Elasticsearch and Kibana  1 Feb 2021 Elastic is moving from an open-source license and prep for an Elasticsearch Elasticsearch and Kibana, has made a change to their licensing. After licence tweaks at MongoDB and Redis aiming to stop cloud service providers that don’t contribute to the open source community from exploiting its projects, Elastic has also updated its licensing terms. 0 or (ii) an Apache License. You choose which license to use. Jan 18, 2021 · Give 'em SSPL, says Elastic. Jan 17, 2021 · In Elastic's case, it does have many small companies monetising Elastic in several ways, including offering it as a service. ” It's all a very interesting and public back-and-forth that I feel will benefit Elastic in the near term, and long run. 0 license to dual licensing under the Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the Elastic License. Our license change comes after years of what we believe to be Amazon/AWS misleading and confusing the community - enough is enough. This change means that components of Elasticsearch or Kibana in subsequent versions (7. 0-licensed source code in Elasticsearch Jan 22, 2021 · Elastic has a right to change their license, but they should also step up and own their own decision. Jan 22, 2021 · Last week, Elastic announced it will drop the open-source Apache 2. A la place, la société opte pour  2018년 8월 11일 Elastic Stack 6. 20 Jan 2021 Elastic is the latest company changing its software licensing model to protect its open-source code from cloud providers. These changes induced loss of the elastic fiber  This installation guide will use the Elastic Stack basic license option, which contains everything included in the open source version under the Apache 2. We also wanted to clarify how the dual license works: - We dual licensed the source code under SSPL and the Elastic License. Introducing Elastic License v2, simplified and more permissive; SSPL remains an option When we announced our license change for Elasticsearch and Kibana, moving the Apache 2 licensed source code to be dual licensed under both the Elastic License and SSPL, we also mentioned we would work closely with the community on a simplified and more permissive version of the Elastic License. The SSPL license was developed by MongoDB, through this license they tried to make it more difficult for AWS to offer Mongo as a service. We are also simplifying the Elastic License (Elastic License v2, or ELv2) and making it substantially more permissive. 0 to SSPL (Server Side Public License). co/blog/why-license-change-AWS. Instead, it's cloud providers. We immediately see that the change in demand is greater than the change in price. The workload pattern is well defined and is highly cost-effective in multitenant scenarios. 0-licensed source code in Elasticsearch and Kibana to be dual licensed under the Elastic License and Server Side Public License (SSPL), giving users the choice of which license to apply. It said it may add provisions to have the code revert to the Apache 2. Jan 15, 2021 · Elastic began to intermingle the parts of their code licensed as Apache 2 and Elastic License to make it difficult to just use the open source parts, and Amazon went further by effectively forking Elasticsearch to offer a totally Apache 2 licensed version they named Elasticsearch OpenDistro. That means that demand is elastic. Take ten seconds to give us  The non-OSS Beats check that the server is a licensed elastic server due to this change to the beats client library: “Check license x-pack”. Elastic의 오픈 소스 방식에 대한 AWS의 우려. Like AWS. 0 라이선스 소스 코드를 SSPL(Server Side Public License)과 Elastic License에 따라 이중 라이선스로 전환하여 사용자가 어느   2021년 1월 19일 Elasticsearch와 Kibana의 Apache 2. Jan 22, 2021 · Open source software maker Elastic will soon make things quite difficult for AWS as the company is moving its source code from the Apache 2. 2. ” Jan 14, 2021 · Elastic made a business decision to change to this hostile proprietary license to give them a way to extortinfluence users to become customers. 0. It is source-available and allows free use, with none of the copyleft aspects of SSPL. It includes TheHive, Playbook and Sigma, Fleet and osquery, CyberChef, Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana, Suricata, Zeek, Wazuh, and many other security tools. 0 license to dual licensing Feb 11, 2021 · Elastic said the licensing change “protects our continued investment in developing products that we distribute for free and in the open by restricting cloud service providers from offering our products as a service without sharing their modifications and the source code of their service management layers. 0 licence for its ElasticSearch and Kibana projects, and instead use the non-open-source Server Side Public License and Elastic licence in a dual-licensing approach. properties. NET , PHP, Python, Apache Groovy, Ruby and many other languages. However recently elastic. com - Anthony Spadafora Open source software maker Elastic will soon make things quite difficult for AWS as the company is moving its source code from the Apache 2. We compare the effects of these programs on the market when the supply curve is inelastic versus elastic. 11 release, it will be switching to an SSPL license and Elasticsearch and Kibana will no longer be open source. Julia Schmidt. Vulnerability scans performed when  14 Aug 2017 Elastic Stack is a very powerful tool for searching, analyzing and visualizing logs and data. The posts were so opaque that Shay added another post clarifying what the new license change is all about. 0-licensed source code in Elasticsearch and Kibana to be dual licensed under Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the Elastic License” (read their full announcement here). 0-license to the Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the Elastic License, you might have thought, "Who cares?" So that's the license that Elastic had used. 0 license,  Elastic delivers blow to AWS with open source licensing change. While I agree with Elastic’s position that it is “not ok” what Amazon has done with their trademark, it has nothing to do with Elastic’s licensing change. 0 (ALv2). Elastic offers simple pricing without any hidden fees or prepayment penalty. Jan 25, 2021 · “Elastic’s license change, nor our decision to fork, will have any negative impact on the Amazon Elasticsearch Service (Amazon ES),” AWS added. The Elastic License already prohibited using either source or compiled object code to run any kind of managed service. The change involves the source code of Elasticsearch, which is moving from Apache 2. 기존에 별도 플러그인 라이센스 정책이 Elastic License로 바뀐 것을 볼 수 있습니다. Fear, uncertainty and doubt is a term used a lot lately. Open source software maker Elastic will soon make things quite difficult for AWS as the company is moving its source code from the Apache 2. As of its upcoming 7. No thanks, say critics: 'Doubling down on open' not open at all. Now, if you notice, the term “Elasticsearch” is in the name. Jan 26, 2021 · Elastic’s license change from open source ALv2 to SSPL appears to have moved Amazon Web Services to “launch new forks of both Elasticsearch and Kibana. The main change is focused towards those who sell Elasticsearch as a service, such as Amazon Elasticsearch Service. Official clients are available in Java, . Disclaimer: I work for Elastic We recently announced our plans for license changes to Elasticsearch and Kibana, and want to share resources to clarify or help address any questions.